The World Bank
Institutional Affiliation: The World Bank
NBER Working Papers and Publications
|June 1991||Do the Benefits of Fixed Exchange Rates Outweigh Their Costs? The Franc Zone in Africa|
with : w3727
We develop a simple formal framework to clarify the trade-offs involved in the choice between a fixed and flexible exchange-rate system. We then apply the framework to the CFA Zone countries in Africa, which have maintained a fixed parity with the French Franc since independence. Thanks to the predominance of a few agricultural products and natural resources in their exports, CFA member countries have suffered frequent shocks in their terms of trade. A flexible exchange rate could have possibly alleviated the costs of these external shocks. On the other hand, CFA member countries have managed to maintain lower inflation levels than their neighbors. Our framework provides a way of weighing these costs and benefits. The inflation differential between CFA and non-CFA African countries has bee...
Published: I. Goldin and A. Winters, eds., International Dimensions of Structural Adjustment. London: Cambridge University Press for CEPR, 1992
|November 1989||Pro-Competitive Effects of Trade Reform: Results from a CGE Model of Cameroon|
with : w3176
How likely is trade liberalization to produce efficiency gains in the presence of imperfect competition, scale economies, and higher-than-average wages in the modern sectors -- all common features of developing economies? These features create a potential conflict to the extent that traditional notions of comparative advantage would lead us to expect that the modern sectors will be squeezed with liberalization. In this paper we investigate the issue by using an applied general equilibrium model calibrated to Cameroonian data. Under perfect competition, the traditional expectations are borne out: manufacturing sectors on the whole contract, and the cash crops sector (mainly coffee and cocoa) is the main beneficiary; the welfare effect is a wash since the beneficial consequence of expanded i...
Published: European Economic Review, July 1991. citation courtesy of