Hajime Katayama

Department of Economics
University of Sydney
Sydney, Australia

Institutional Affiliation: University of Sydney

NBER Working Papers and Publications

March 2008Is Protection Really for Sale? A Survey and Directions for Future Research
with Susumu Imai, Kala Krishna: w13899
This paper critically and selectively surveys the literature on protection for sale and discusses directions for future research in this area. It suggests that the standard approach needs to be augmented to provide more compelling tests of this model.

Published: Imai, Susumu & Katayama, Hajime & Krishna, Kala, 2009. "Is protection really for sale? A survey and directions for future research," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 181-191, March. citation courtesy of

A Quantile-based Test of Protection for Sale Model
with Susumu Imai, Kala Krishna: w13900
This paper proposes a new test of the Protection for Sale (PFS) model by Grossman and Helpman (1994). Unlike existing methods in the literature, our approach does not require any data on political organizations. We formally show that the PFS model predicts that the quantile regression of the protection measure on the inverse import penetration ratio divided by the import demand elasticity, should yield a positive coefficient for quantiles close to one. We test this prediction using the data from Gawande and Bandyopadhyay (2000). The results do not provide any evidence favoring the PFS model.

Published: Journal of International Economics Volume 91, Issue 1, September 2013, Pages 40–52 citation courtesy of

May 2006Protection for Sale or Surge Protection?
with Susumu Imai, Kala Krishna: w12258
This paper asks whether the results obtained from using the standard approach to testing the influential Grossman and Helpman %u201Cprotection for sale (PFS)%u201D model of political economy might arise from a simpler setting. A model of imports and quotas with protection occurring in response to import surges, but only for organized industries, is simulated and shown to provide parameter estimates consistent with the protection for sale framework. This suggests that the standard approach may be less of a test than previously thought.

Published: Imai, Susumu & Katayama, Hajime & Krishna, Kala, 2009. "Protection for sale or surge protection?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 53(6), pages 675-688, August. citation courtesy of

Crime and Young Men: The Role of Arrest, Criminal Experience, and Heterogeneity
with Susumu Imai, Kala Krishna: w12221
Using National Youth Survey (NYS) data, we examine the relationship of current criminal activity and past arrests using an ordered probit model with unobserved heterogeneity. Past arrests raise current criminal activity only for the non-criminal type, while past criminal experience raises current criminal activity for both types. Also, the age crime profile peaks at age 18 for non-criminal type individuals, but for criminal type individuals, it continues to rise with age. Past research indicates that age arrest profiles rise till age 18 and then fall for both types, suggesting lower apprehension rates for criminal type individuals.
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