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Demographics of the S&E Workforce

References and Weblinks to Materials Related to the Demographics of the S&E Workforce

Courtesy of Helena Noh, Phillips Exeter Academy (2004)

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List of References

1)      “A Guide to Minority Aid from Scientific Societies.” Science 262.5136 (1993): 1134.


2)       “African Science, African and African-American Scientists and the School Science Curriculum.” School Science and Mathematics 94.2 (1994): 96.


3)      “Bringing Science Back to the Neighborhood.” Science 262.5136 (1993): 1116.


4)      “Education Department Grants for College Programs for Disadvantaged and Minority Students.” Techniques 76.7 (2001): 6.


5)      “Getting Women and Minorities into the Sciences.” The Education Digest Dec 1006: 46.


6)      “Girls’ Math/Science Education.” The Education Digest 63.5 (1998): 42.


7)      “How Can Middle Schools Get Minority Females in the Math/Science.” The Education Digest 59.2 (1993): 39.


8)      “Keep Culture from Keeping Girls Out of Science.” The Education Digest Sep 1994: 19.


9)      “Math Education: Multiplying the Meager Numbers.” Science 258.5085 (1992): 1200.


10)  “Morgan Studies Efforts to Initiate Black Students toward Science.” Black Issues in Higher Education 20.1 (2003): 22.


11)  “New National Task Force to Address Lack of Hispanics in Science, Technology.” Black Issues in Higher Education 20.17 (2003): 11.


12)   “Science and Mathematics Equity Issues at a Local School District Level.” School Science and Mathematics 94.2 (1994): 65.


13)  “Study Shows African American Girls Inclined to Science Early.” Black Issues in Higher Education 17.26 (2001): 11.


14)  “The Minority Grant Research Program at Bristol-Myers Squibb.” Science 274.5288 (1996): 834.


15)  Adenika-Morrow, T Jean. “A Lifeline to Science Careers for African-American Females.” Educational Leadership 53.8 (1996): 80.


16)  Boaler, Jo. “Reclaiming School Mathematics: The Girls Fight Back.” Gender and Education. 9.3 (1997): 285.


17)  Brownstein, Erica M. and Thomas Destino. “Science Enrichment Outreach.” The Science Teacher 62. 2 (1995): 28.


18)  Cavallo, Ann M., Wendell H. Potter, and Michelle Rozman. “Gender Differences in Learning Constructs, Shifts in Learning Constructs, and Their Relationship to Course Achievement in a Structured Inquiry, Yearlong College Physics Course for Life Science Majors.” School Science and Mathematics 104.6 (2004): 288.


19)  Cavanagh, Sean. “Science Groups Write Guide to Help Minority Recruiting.” Education Week 24.7 (2004): 12. 


20)  Chacon, Paul and Hortensia Soto-Johnson. “Encouraging Young Women to Stay in the Mathematics Pipeline: Mathematics Camps for Young Women.” School Science and Mathematics 103.6 (2003): 274.


21)  Clewell, Beatriz Chu, Bernice Taylor Anderson, and Margaret E. Thorpe. Breaking the Barriers: Helping Female and Minority Students Succeed in Mathematics and Science. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1992.


22)  Crombie, Gail. “Getting Girls into Tech Classes.” The Education Digest 66.5 (2001): 42.


23)  Daugherty, Sharon Nicole. “The Aerospace Corporation: Helping students get their start in engineering and science.” Black Collegian 31.1 (2000): 58.


24)  Davis, Sara N., Mary Crawford, and Jadwiga Sebrechts. Coming Into Her Own Educational Success in Girls and Women. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc., 1999.


25)  Dudley, Barlow. “The Scientist Within You: Women Scientists from Seven Continents.” The Education Digest 61.9 (1996): 68.


26)  Eccleston, Jeff. “Girls Only, Please.” Science and Children 37.2 (1999): 21.


27)  Eisenhart, Margaret A. and Elizabeth Finkel. Women’s Science Learning and Succeeding from the Margins. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1998.


28)  Ellis, Ronald S. “Impacting the Science Attitudes of Minority High School Youth.” School Science and Mathematics 93.8 (1993): 400. 


29)  Etzkowitz, Henry, Carol Kemelgor, and Brian Uzzi. Athena Unbound: The Advancement of Women in Science and Technology. Cambridge: Cambridge Univeristy Press, 2000.


30)  Furger, Roberta. Does Jane Compute? Preserving Our Daughters’ Place in the Cyber Revolution. New York: Warner Books, Inc., 1998.


31)  George, Alison. “It’s a Woman’s World.” New Scientist 184. 2468 (2004): 50.


32)  Gorski, Paul C. “How Computers STILL Cheat Girls.” The Education Digest 68.3 (2002): 23.


33)  Gwizdala, Joyce and Myriam Steinback. “High School Females’ Mathematics Attitudes: An Interim Report.” School Science and Mathematics 90.3 (1990): 215.


34)  Hanson, Sandra L. Lost Talent Women in the Sciences. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996.


35)  Hatfield, Julie. “Mentor With a Mission Dr. Joan Reede Specializes in Minority Students—she encourages them to try a career in medicine or science.” Boston Globe 7 June 1999: C. 6.


36)  Hayden, Linda Bailey and Mary W. Gray. “A Successful Intervention Program for High Ability Minority Students.” School Science and Mathematics 90.4 (1990): 323.


37)  Heller, Kurt A. and Albert Ziegler. “Gender Differences in Mathematics and the Sciences: Can Attributional Retraining Improve the Performance of Gifted Females.” The Gifted Child Quarterly. 40.4 (1996): 200.


38)  Henrion, Claudia. Women in Mathematics The Addition of Difference. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997.


39)  Hensel, Robin A M. “Mathematical Achievement: Equating the Sexes.” School Science and Mathematics 89.8 (1989): 646


40)  Herzig, Abbe H. “‘Slaughtering this Beautiful Math.’: Graduate Women Choosing and Leaving Mathematics.” Gender and Education 16.3 (2004): 379.


41)  Hiemenz, Paul C. and M Catharine Hudspeth. “Academic Excellence Workshops for Underrepresented Students at Cal Poly, Pomona.” Journal of College Science Teaching 23.1 (1993): 38.


42)  Hoffmire, Susan Y. “The Technology Book for Girls and Other Advanced Beings.” Science and Children 39.6 (2002): 34.


43)  Holden, Constance. “Fewer Black Engineers.” Science 270.5240 (1995): 1305.


44)  Holden, Constance. “No Hostile Climate Found for Minorities.” Science 269.5227 (1995): 1047. 


45)  Holden, Constance. “Uneven Progress.” Science 267.5201 (1995): 1095.


46)  Hollinshead, Ariel. “Enabling Your Female Students.” Science Scope 20.8 (1997): 4.


47)  Holsendolph, Ernest. “Academica Wants to Attract More Minorities to Sciences.” The Atlanta Journal the Atlanta Constitution 5 Mar 2000: D.2.


48)  Holsendolph, Ernest. “Group Strives to Teach Minorities Science, Math.” The Atlanta Journal the Atlanta Constitution 25 June 2000: G. 6.


49)  Hrabowski, Freeman A. and Kenneth I Maton. “Enhancing the Success of African-American Students in the Sciences: Freshman Year Outcomes.” School Science and Mathematics 95.1 (1995): 19.


50)  Hrabowski III, Freeman A. “Raising Minority Achievement in Science and Math.” Educational Leadership 60.4 (2003): 44.


51)  Illman, Deborah. “Research for Women, Minority Undergrads.” Chemical & Engineering News 71. 31 (1993): 31.


52)  Jacobs, Madeleine. “Minority Panel Examines K-12 Science Education.” Chemical & Engineering News 76.27 (1998): 38.


53)  Jo, Sanders. “Closing the Computer Gender Gap.” The Education Digest 52.2 (1986): 20.


54)  Jobe, Denice A. “Helping Girls Succeed.” Educational Leadership 60.4 (2003): 64.


55)  Jones, George H. “Minorities in the Scientific Workforce.” Science 296.5566 (2002): 217.


56)  Kahle, Jane Butler. Women in Science A Report from the Field. Philadelphia, The Falmer Press, 1985.


57)  Kelly, Dennis. “‘Encouraging’ Gains in Minority Math, Science.” USA Today 3 Nov 1993: D4.


58)  Larsen, Kristine M. “Participation in Science by Minorities.” Mercury 24.3 (1995): 14.


59)  Larsen, Kristine M. “Programs for American Minority Students in Science.” Mercury 24.3 (1995): 32.


60)  Lederman, Muriel, and Ingrid Bartsch. The Gender and Science Reader. New York: Routledge, 2001.


61)  Lewis, Anne C. “Academic Gaps.” The Education Digest 67.9 (2002): 50.


62)  Lewis, Diane E. “Efforts Lays a Foundation for IT Sector Local Companies Join an Initiative to Land Women, Minorities in Tech Careers.” Boston Globe 3 June 2001: J 1.


63)  Lively, Kit. “National Science Foundation to Help 6 Institutions Train Blacks, Hispanics, and Indians in the Sciences.” The Chronicle of Higher Education 41.9 (1994): A35.


64)  Mann, Judy. “Giving Girls a Push in High-Tech Direction.” The Washington Post 18 Nov 1998: C. 26.


65)  Math and Science for Girls A Symposium sponsored by The National Coalition of Girls’ Schools (this was held at Wellesley College from June 16-20, 1991. 82 teachers representing 46 independent schools across the country converted to share their teaching experiences in mathematics and science to girls)


66)  Margolis, Jane. Unlocking the Clubhouse: Women in Computing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002.


67)  Mervis, Jeffrey. “Efforts to Boost Diversity Face Persistent Problems.” Science 284.5421 (1999): 1757.


68)  Mervis, Jeffrey. “Minority Programs Czar for NSF.” Science 301.5632 (2003): 447.


69)  Mervis, Jeffrey. “MIT Broadens Minority-Only Programs.” Science 299.5610 (2003): 1167.


70)  Mervis, Jeffrey. “NIH Program Gives Minorities a Chance to Make Their MARC.” Science 301.5632 (2003): 455.


71)  Monhardt, Rebecca Meyer. “Fair Play in Science Education: Equal Opportunities for Minority Students.” The Clearing House 74.1 (2000): 18.


72)  Moore, Jan E. “Girls in Science Rule!” Science and Children 40.7 (2003): 38.


73)  Morell, Virginia. “Computer Culture Deflects Women and Minorities.” Science 271.5257 (1996): 1915. 


74)  Moore, Jan E. “Girls in Science Rule!” Science and Children 40.7 (2003): 38.


75)  Moulton, Meg Milne and Whitney Ransome. “Helping Girls Succeed.” Education Week 13.8 (1993): 23.


76)  Otto, Paul B. “One Science, One Sex?” School Science and Mathematics 91. 8 (1991): 367.


77)  Patterson, P.A. “The National Consortium for Graduate Degrees for Minorities in Engineering and Sciences (GEM): The Power of Partnership.” Black Collegian 34.1 (2003): 124.


78)  Pollina, Ann. “Gender Balance: Lessons from Girls in Science and Mathematics.” Education Leadership 53.1 (1995): 30.


79)  Ramirez, Francisco O. and Christine Min Wotipka. “Slowly but Surely? The Global Expansion of Women’s Participation in Science and Engineering Fields of Study, 1972-92.” Sociology of Education 74. 3 (2001): 231-251.


80)  Rey, Camille Mojica. “Making Rooms for Diversity Makes Sense.” Science 293.5535 (2001): 1611.


81)  Roach, Ronald. “Losing Ground.” Black Issues in Higher Education 21.2 (2004): 28-29.


82)  Salpeter, Judy. “High-tech Schools for Girls.” Technology & Learning 18.3 (1997): 61.


83)  Sanders, Jo and Karen Peterson. “Close the Gap for Girls in Math-related Careers.” The Education Digest 65.4 (1999): 47.


84)  Scherer, Ron. “Science PhD Programs Build Bridges to Urban Minorities.” Christian Science Monitor 23 Apr 1996: 1.


85)  Schofield, Janet Ward. Computers and Classroom Culture. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.


86)  Schroeder, Ken. “Women and minorities.” The Education Digest 68.4 (2002): 72. 


87)  Seymour, Elaine and Nancy M. Hewitt. Talking about Leaving – Why Undergraduates Leave the Sciences. Boulder: Westview Press, 1997.


88)  Seymour, Elaine. “The Loss of Women from Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Undergraduate Majors: An Explanatory Account.” Science Education 79.4 (1995): 437.


89)  Shepardson, Daniel P. and Edward L. Pizzini. “Gender Bias in Female Elementary Teachers’ Perceptions of the Scientific Ability of Students.” Science Education 76.2 (1992): 147.


90)  Sonnert, Gerhard. Who Succeeds in Science? The Gender Dimension. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995.


91)  Steinback, Myriam and Joyce Gwizdala. “Gender Differences in Mathematics Attitudes of Secondary Students.” School Science and Mathematics 95.1 (1995): 36.


92)  Swarat, Su., et al. “Opening the Gateway.” Journal of College Science Teaching 34.1 (2004): 18.


93)  Teicher, Stacy A. “The Secrets of Their Hard-earned Success; A College President Discusses his Findings on What Helps Young African-American Women to Thrive in Math, Science.” Christian Science Monitor 15 Jan 2002: 15.


94)  Terry, McCarty Janice and William E. Baird. “What Factors Affect Attitudes Toward Women in Science Held by High School Biology Students?” School Science and Mathematics 97.2 (1997): 78.


95)  Thom, Mary. “Girls in Science and Technology: What’s New, What’s Next?” The Education Digest 67.5 (2002): 17.


96)  Thompson, Garland L. “NSF Conference Boosts Diversity: Action Plan Drafted to Reshape Science, Math Education.” Black Issues in Higher Education 11.17 (1994): 42.


97)  Walkerdine, Valerie. Counting Girls Out: Girls and Mathematics. Bristol, PA: Falmer Press, 1998.


98)  Webb, Melvin R. “Science Teaching.” Black Collegian 23.3 (1993): 84.


99)  Wolf, Leslie R. “Don’t Segregate Girls.” USA Today 25 Apr 1996: A12.


100) Wyer, Mary., et al. Women, Science and Technology: A Feminist Reader. New             York: Routledge, 2001.


101) Xie, Yu, and Kimerlee A. Shauman. Women in Science: Career Processes and

        Outcomes. Harvard University Press, 2003.


102) Yarrison-Rice, Jan M. “On the Problem of Making Science Attractive for                      Women and Minorities: An Annotated Bibliography.” American Journal of           Physics 63.3 (1995): 203.


103) Yentsch, Clarice M. and Carl J. Sindermann. The Woman Scientist Meeting      the Challenges for a Successful Career. New York: Plenum Press, 1992.


104) Zuckerman, Harriet, Jonathan R. Cole, and John T. Bruer. The Outer Circle          Women in the Scientific Community. New York: W.W. Norton & Company,         1991.



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List of Websites


1)      References – Women in Science & Engineering



2)      GirlTech in CEEE (Center for Excellence & Equality in Education)



3)      National Educational Outreach Leadership

-         EOT – PACI @ CRPC : The Education, Outreach, and Training Partnership for Advanced Computational Infrastructure



-         EOT – PACI



4)      National Academy of Sciences

-         Engineer Girl



-         NACM (National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering)



-         Committee on Women in Science and Engineering

      (standing committee of the National Research Council)



5)      Committee on the Status of Women in Computing Research



6)      Women-Related Websites in Science and Technology



7)      Center for Women & Information Technology

      (to encourage more women to prepare for careers and become leaders in       information technology)



8)      Educational Cyber Play Ground



9)      The Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science at Case Western Reserve University

-         Women, Differences, and Ethnicity: Experiences in engineering and science



10)  List of the Summer programs for high school students (especially girls or the underrepresented groups)



11)  BEST: Public-private partnership to build stronger and diverse workforce in science and engineering by encouraging the underrepresented groups



12)  Most of the sources are membership required.




13)  National Consortium for Graduate Degrees for Minorities in Engineering and Science, Inc.



14)  MHSAP (Minority High School Apprenticeship Programs)



15)  The National Education Goals Panel



16)  Women’s Educational Equity Act (WEAA) Resource Center



17)  Gender Issues in Computer Science Education



18)  The Black Collegian Online

      The Career Site for Students of Color