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Briefing Book 1 -- 1.14.2005



A Conference of the Science and Engineering Workforce Project (SEWP) at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

Sponsored by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

14-15 January 2005

Briefing Book 1

Table of Contents

I. The Current Situation

1. Herbert A. Medina. "Doctorate Degrees in Mathematics Earned by Blacks, Hispanics/Latinos, and Native Americans: A Look at the Numbers," Notices of the AMS, 51:7, August 2004. [page 6]

2. Donna J. Nelson and Diana C. Rogers. "A National Analysis of Diversity in Science and Engineering Faculties at Research Universities," Executive Summary. [page 10]

3. National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resource Statistics. Women and Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering: 2004, NSF 04-317 (Arlington, VA, 2004). [page 22]

4. Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. STEM Workforce Data Project: Report No. 1, "Twenty Years of Scientific and Technical Employment," 4 June (Washington, DC: CPST 2004). [page 35]

5. Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. STEM Workforce Data Project: Report No. 2, "Women in Science and Technology: the Sisyphean Challenge of Change," 4 October (Washington, DC: CPST 2004). [page 43]

6. NSF SRS Science & Engineering Indicators 2004, Appendix Table 2-22, "Earned bachelor's degrees, by field and sex: 1977-2000 (selected years). [page 51]

7. NSF SRS Science & Engineering Indicators 2004, Appendix Table 2-23, "Earned bachelor degrees, by field, race/ethnicity, and citizenship: Selected years, 1977-2000. [page 54]

8. Beatriz Chu Clewell and Patricia B. Campbell, "Taking Stock: Where We've Been, Where We Are, Where We're Going," Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, vol. 8, 2002. [page 57]

II. Research University Experiences

1. Margaret W. Rossiter. "A Twisted Tale: Women in the Physical Sciences in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries," Chapter 3 in Mary Jo Nye (ed) The Modern Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Vol 5 in the series The Cambridge History of Science (UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002). [page 87]

2. Nancy Hopkins. "Gender Equity and Faculty Diversity Work" (memo, no date) [page 97]

3. Reports of the Committees on the Status of Women Faculty. "Report of the School of Science, 2002 update, 1999 report," March 2002, MIT. [page 98]

4. Marcela Bombardieri. "MIT Set to Pick Its First Female President," The Boston Globe 26 August 2004. [page 110]

5. Barbara J. Grosz. "Report on Women in the Sciences at Harvard, Part I: Junior Faculty and Graduate Students," FAS Standing Committee on the Status of Women, Harvard University, 1991. [page 111]

III. Psychological and Sociological Aspects of Occupation Choice

1. Marcia C. Linn and Cathy Kessel. "Gender differences in cognition and educational performance" in L. Nadel, ed., The Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (Vol. 2) (New York: Macmillan, 2003 [page 129]

2. Sue V. Rosser, "Sociology of Science: Testing Theories for the Gender Difference," Science, vol. 302, 28 November 2003 [page 136]

3. Yu Xie and Kimberlee A. Shauman, "Conclusion," chapter eleven of Women in Science: Career Prospects and Outcomes (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003) [page 138]

4. David Lubinski, Camilla Persson Benbow, Daniel L. Shea, Hossain Eftekhari-Sanjani, and Marcy B.J. Halvorson, "Men and Women At Promise for Scientific Excellence: Similarity Not Dissimilarity," Psychological Science, vol. 12, no. 4, July 2001 [page 145]

5. Ana R. Delgado and Gerardo Prieto, "Cognitive mediators and sex-related differences in mathematics," Intelligence 32, 2004 [page 154]

6. Suzanne G. Brainard and Linda Carlin, "A Longitudinal Study of Undergraduate Women in Engineering and Science" at http://fie.engrng.pitt.edu/fie97/papers/1252.pdf [page 162]

7. Joann S. Lublin, "Women Aspire to Be Chief as Much as Men Do," Wall Street Journal, 23 June 2004 [page 172]
Search http://online.wsj.com/public/us (password required)

8. Brian A. Nosek, Mahzarin R. Banaji, and Anthony G. Greenwald, "Math=Male, Me=Female, Therefore Math Me," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 83, no. 1, 2002 [page 173]

9. Claude M. Steele, "A Threat in the Air: How Stereotypes Shape Intellectual Identity and Performance," American Psychologist, June 1997 [page 189]

IV. Learning from Successful Programs

1. Freeman A. Hrabowski III. "The Meyerhoff Scholars Program: Producing High-Achieving Minority Students in Mathematics and Science," Notices of the AMS, 48:1, January 2001. [page 206]

2. Denna M. Amato-McCoy. "Making a Positive Spin: Inclusion Programs and Mentoring Promote Professional Growth for Electrical Engineering Companies," Workforce Diversity for Engineering and IT Professionals, Winter 2003/2004. [page 209]

3. "A Good Man is Hard to Find: Discussing the Epidemic Shortage of males & Minorities in Teaching," JobPostings April 2004. [page 212]

4. Cris Prystay. "New Equation: As Math Skills Slip, US Schools Seek Answers from Asia," Wall Street Journal, Monday 13 December 2004. [page 214]
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5. Gail Russell Chaddock. "Math + Test = Trouble for US Economy," The Christian Science Monitor, Tuesday 7 December 2004. [page 216]

6. Christa Case. "US Lags in Math, But Not as Far," Christian Science Monitor, 16 December 2004. [page 217]

7. Daniel Golden. "Unequal Signs: For Inner-city Schools, Calculators May Be the Wrong Answer," Wall Street Journal, Friday 15 December 2000 [page 218]
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8. G. Jeffrey MacDonald. "Contrarian Finding: Computers Are a Drag on Learning," Christian Science Monitor, 6 December 2004 [page 220]

9. Andrea L.Foster. "Playing Catch-Up: A Bill in Congress Could Give Minority Institutions New Money for Computer Technology," The Chronicle of Higher Education, 27 June 2003. [page 222]
http://chronicle.com/archive/(Archive search: password required to view article)

10. Sheila Tobias. "Women.com, Are the Geeks Keeping the Gals Away from the Computer?: Review of Unlocking the Clubhouse: Women in Computing, by Jane Margolis and Allan Fisher," Literary Review of Canada May 2002. [page 224]

11. "Professional Science Masters: A New Direction in Professional Masters Education in the Sciences and Mathematics," www.sciencemasters.com. [page 227]

12. Joanna Krotz. "Save Money, Hire Masters: Companies Hire Scientists with Masters' Degrees to Reduce Costs," The Scientist, 2 February 2004. [page 228]
http://www.the-scientist.com/2004/02/02/44/1 (Subscription required)

13. Sheila Tobias, Daryl E. Chubin, and Kevin Aylesworth. "Reinventing the Master's Degree and Revitalizing Undergraduate Programs," chapter 6 of Rethinking Science as a Career: Perception and Realities in the Physical Sciences (Tucson: Research Corporation, 1995) [page 230]

14. T.J. Becker. "Breaking Down Gender Barriers: New Book [by Sue V. Rosser] Looks at Roadblocks Impeding Women Scientists and Engineers," Georgia Tech Research News, News Release 16 February 2004. [page 240]

15. Linda C. Tillman. "Mentoring African American Faculty in Predominantly White Institutions," Research in Higher Education, 42:3, 2001. [page 243]

16. Jerilee Grandy, "Persistence in Science of High-Ability Minority Students: Results of a Longitudinal Study," Journal of Higher Education, vol. 69, no. 6, November/December 1998. [page 259]

V. Academic Employment Issues

1. Judith Glazer-Raymo. "The Academic Pipeline and the Academic Labor Market," in Shattering the Myths: Women in Academe (Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999). [page 275]

2. "Why Women Ought to Lead Departments," Chronicle of Higher Education/ The Chronicle Review, 18 June 2004. [page 291]
http://chronicle.com/archive/(Archive search: password required to view article)

3. Robin Wilson. "The Unintended Consequences of Affirmative Action," Chronicle of Higher Education, 31 January 2003. [page 292]
http://chronicle.com/archive/(Archive search: password required to view article)

4. Cathy A. Trower and Richard P. Chait. "Faculty Diversity: Too Little for Too Long," Harvard Magazine, March/April 2002. [page 295]

5. Yudhijit Bhattacharjee. "Family Matters: Stopping Tenure Clock May Not Be Enough," Science Vol 306, 17 December 2004. www.sciencemag.org [page 301]
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/306/5704/2031 (Registration required)

6. Craig Timberg. "Discrimination Claims at Black College in VA," The Boston Globe, 7 September 2000, A3. [page 303]

7. Robin Wilson. "Where the Elite Teach, It's Still a Man's World," The Chronicle of Higher Education, 3 December 2004. [page 304]

8. Piper Fogg and Robin Wilson. "Where Are They Now?" The Chronicle of Higher Education, 3 December 2004. [page 306]

9. Yilu Zhao. "Beyond ‘Sweetie': Women's Place in Professional Schools: More Is Merrier," New York Times/ Education Life supplement, 7 November 2004. [page 310]

VI. Non-Academic Employment Issues

1. Mary Williams Walsh. "Where G.E. Falls Short: Diversity at the Top," The New York Times, Section 3 (Money & Business), 3 September 2000. [page 313]

2. Barbara Durr. "Clubbing Together to Get Ahead," Financial Times, 17 June 2002. [page 319]

3. Alison Maitland. "A Highly Ambitious Minority Struggles to the Top," Financial Times, 17 June 2002. [page 320]

4. Patrick Jenkins and Bettina Wassener. "Equality: How Germany Keeps Women Off the Board," Financial Times, 15 June 2004. [page 321]

5. Diane E. Lewis. "Push On to Diversity Boardroom," Boston Globe, Friday 11 July 2003. [page 322]
http://www.boston.com/globe/search/ (Search Boston Globe Archives: Registration required)

6. Silvia Ascarelli and Sarah McCann. "U.K. Suits Uncover Sexism in the City," Wall Street Journal, 14 May 2003. [page 323]
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7. Emma Tucker. "When It Doesn't Pay to Be a Mother," Financial Times, 12 June 2002. [page 324]

8. "Then & Now: Has Workforce Diversity in the Last Decade Affected Careers in Technical Fields?" Workforce Diversity for Engineering and IT Professionals, Winter 2003/2004. [page 325]

9. John Borchardt, "Facts, Figures, & Fun" [featuring short articles on "Asian Women in the Workplace" and "Women vs. Men"], Workforce Diversity for Engineering and IT Professionals, Winter 2003/2004. [page 327]

10. Lana D'Amico. "Happy 25th Anniversary! Women Engineers – A Reason to Celebrate," Woman Engineer, Spring 2004. [page 331]

11. Claudia D. Wheeler. "At the Head of their Class: Three High Achievers Reach the Top of their Profession," Woman Engineer, Spring 2004. [page 332]

12. Lucy Ward. "‘Mummy Track' Keeps Women from Top Jobs," The Guardian, Thursday 30 December 2004. [page 335]

13. "Women and Jobs: Untapped Potential," The Guardian, Thursday 30 December 2004. [page 336]

14. Louis Uchitelle. "Job Track or ‘Mommy Track'? Some Do Both, in Phases," New York Times, 5 July 2002. [page 337]

15. Bhavya Lal, Sam Yoon, Ken Carlson. "How Large is the Gap in Salaries of Male and Female Engineers?" Issue Brief NSF 99-352, 26 July 1999, Division of Science Resources Studies, National Science Foundation. [page 339]

16. Benjamin Hinkley. "Let Market Determine the Fate of IT Girls," Los Angeles Times, Monday 26 May 2003. [page 343]

VII. Public Policy

1. K. Edward Renner and Thom Moore. "The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same: The Elusive Search for Racial Equity in Higher Education," Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 4:1, 2004. [page 344]

2. "Affirmative Action Beneficiaries Performing at Levels Equal to Their White Peers," The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, Autumn 1996. [page 359]

3. Katherine S. Mangan. "Does Affirmative Action Hurt Black Law Students?" Chronicle of Higher Education, 12 November 2004. [page 361]

4. John Hechinger. "Critics Assail Study of Race, Law Students," Wall Street Journal, 5 November 2004. [page 363]

5. Frederick L. Smyth and John J. McArdle. "Ethnic and Gender Differences in Science Graduation at Selective Colleges with Implications for Admission Policy and College Choice," Research in Higher Education, 45:4, June 2004. [page 365]

6. Mark Sappenfield and Mary Beth McCauley, "God or Science? Ninth-grade biology teachers in Dover, Pa., must include ‘intelligent design' in their instruction. Observers say it is a sign of what's to come," Christian Science Monitor, 23 November 2004. [page 380]

7. Nathan Glazer. "Will Anything Work?: Review of Abigail Thernstrom and Stephan Thernstrom, No Excuses: Closing the Racial Gap in Learning," The New Republic, 13 & 20 October 2003. [page 383]

8. Opinion. "Color-Blind Progress," The Wall Street Journal Monday, 13 December 2004. [page 389]

9. Peter Schmidt. "Nor Just for Minority Students Anymore," The Chronicle of Higher Education, 19 March 2004. [page 390]

10. Amy Finnerty. "More Work, Less Play Is Making Jack a Dull Boy," Financial Times Weekend 17/18 March, 2001. [page 394]

11. Sara Hebel. "‘Percent Plans' Don't Add Up: Analysis of California, Florida, and Texas Admissions Programs Indicates that Their Impact is Less than Advertised," Chronicle of Higher Education, 21 March 2003. [page 395]
http://chronicle.com/archive/(Archive search: password required to view article)

12. Peter Schmidt. "New Pressure Put on Colleges to End Legacies in Admissions," Chronicle of Higher Education, L:21, 30 January 2004. [page 399]

13. Daniel Golden. "Admission: Possible, Language Test Gives Hispanic Students a Leg Up in California: As Colleges Shun the SAT, Critics See a Back Door for Affirmative Action," Wall Street Journal Tuesday 26 June 2001. [page 403]
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14. Garth Massey. "Thinking About Affirmative Action: Arguments Supporting Preferential Policies," Review of Policy Research, 21:6, 2004. [page 405]