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Reading List: 23 March 2001

 


Policy and Data Issues of the Scientific Workforce

 

The Science & Engineering Workforce Project

of the National Bureau of Economic Research

 

Sponsored by the Sloan Foundation

 

Conference of March 23, 2001

 

 

Table of Contents

 

INTRODUCTION

 

1. Stephan, Paula E. 1996. “The Economics of Science,” Journal of Economic Literature       34 (September) 1199-1235.

            http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-0515%28199609%2934%3A3%3C1199%3ATEOS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O

 

 

I.  THE PERENNIAL SHORTAGE-SURPLUS DEBATE

 

1. Geoff Davis , “Mathematicians and the Market” Notices of the AMS Nov 1997.

            http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/~gdavis/policy/papers/html/market.html

2. Freeman, Richard. 1975. “Supply and Salary Adjustments to the Changing Science   Manpower Market: Physics 1948-73”. American Economic Review 65:1 (March)          27-39

            http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8282%28197503%2965%3A1%3C27%3ASASATT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-K

3. Freeman, Richard. 1980. “Employment Opportunities in the Doctorate Manpower    Market” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 33:2 (January).

            http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0019-7939%28198001%2933%3A2%3C185%3AEOITDM%3E2.0.CO%3B2-7

4. Stern, Scott. 2000. “Do Scientists Pay to Be Scientists?” MIT Sloan School (May).

            http://papers.nber.org/papers/w7410.pdf

5. Zucker, Lynne G., Michael R. Darby and Maximo Torero. 1997. “Labor Mobility from         Academe to Commerce,” NBER WP#6050, May. ( Cambridge, MA: NBER).

            http://papers.nber.org/papers/w6050.pdf

6. Steinberg, Douglas. 2000. “Another Study Raps PhD Overproduction,” The Scientist           14[19]:32 (Oct 2).

            http://www.the-scientist.com/yr2000/oct/prof_001002.html

7. Lane, Neal F. 1995. “Separating Science Policy from Science Fiction,” Remarks to the         National Forum on Setting Strategic Direction for PhD. Supply/Demand, Council   of Scientific Society Presidents, December 4.

            http://www.nsf.gov/nsf/aboutnsf/slcssp2.htm

8. Massey, Walter E. 1992. “NSF Stance on ‘skills shortage’,” Nature 357:11 (June) 433.

9. Holden, Constance. 1991. “Do We Need More PhDs or Is Fewer Really Better?”    Science 251:4997 (March 1) 1017-18.

            http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0036-8075%2819910301%293%3A251%3A4997%3C1017%3ADWNMPO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Y

10. Begely, Sharon. 1991. “Gridlock in the Labs,” Newsweek 117:2 (January 14) 44.

11. Marshall, Eliot. 1992. “Congress: Was the ‘Shortfall’ Phoney?” Science 256:5054 (April 10) 172.

            http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0036-8075%2819920410%293%3A256%3A5054%3C172%3ACWT%22P%3E2.0.CO  %3B2-E

12. Duderstadt, James J. 1992. “Too Many Scientists? Don’t Believe It,” Washington Post (June 2) A19.

13. Wolpe, Howard. 1992. “Bogus Study About Scientists,” Washington Post (June 13)         A19.

14. Griffiths, Phillip. 1995. “No PhD Glut in Science and Engineering,” Washington Post          (July 29) A12.

15. Greenberg, Daniel S. 1995. “Surplus in Science,” Washington Post: Editorial         (December 2).

16. Greenberg, Daniel S. 1999. “Scientists Attack the Federal Budget with the Politics of          Calculated Panic,” Washington Post, Column, Point of View (April 22).

17. Goodstein, David L. 1995. “After the Big Crunch,” Science (Summer) 53-60.

            http://www.its.caltech.edu/~dg/crunch_art.html

18. Greenhouse, Steven. 2000. “Strong Job Market Create a Hiring Frenzy in High-Tech          Fields,” New York Times (June 3).

19. National Research Council. “Methods of Forecasting Demand and Supply of Doctoral        Scientists and Engineers,” Proceedings of a Workshop, Office of Scientific and     Engineering Personnel.

            http://www4.nas.edu/cp.nsf/0/611a29a519941f34852565690079b77b?OpenDocument

20. Atkinson, Richard C. 1996. “The Numbers Game and Graduate Education,”           Transcript of Remarks: Conference on Graduate Education in the Biological             Sciences in the 21st Century, San Francisco (October 2).

            http://www.ucop.edu/pres/comments/numbers.html

21. Zare, Richard N. 1998. “Preparing Future PhD’s for a Changing Job Market,”        Commentary (January 5)

            http://www.the-scientist.library.upenn.edu/yr1998/jan/comm_980105.html

 

II. IMMIGRANT SET WORKERS

 

1. Lowell, B. Lindsay. 1998. “Statistics on Foreign Scientists and Engineers,”    Georgetown University Workshop, October. 

            http://www.georgetown.edu/sfs/programs/isim/publications.htm

2. Levin, Sharon G. and Paula E. Stephan. 1999. “Are the Foreign Born a Source of     Strength for U.S. Science?” Science 285 (August 20) 1213-1214.

            http://www.bmbf.de/pub/talent_ii-3.pdf

3. Stephan, Paula E and Sharon G. Levin. 2000. “Exceptional Contributions to U.S.      Science by the Foreign-Born and Foreign-Educated,” forthcoming Population       Research and Policy Review (September).

            http://www.umsl.edu/~ecoslevi/Files/Exceptional%20contributions%20to%20US%20science%20by%20the%20foreign-born%20and%20foreign-educated.pdf

4. Levin, Sharon G., Paula E. Stephan and Anne E. Winkler. 2000. “Imported Brains in            Science and Engineering: Employment Consequences for U.S.-Citizens”. Draft.    Prepared for the Conference on Migration and Development, Office of Population    Research, Princeton University , May 4-6.

            http://www.gsu.edu/~wwwsps/people/StephanP/importedbrains.pdf

5. Johnson, Jean M. and Mark C. Regets. 1998. “International Mobility of Scientists and           Engineers to the United States – Brain Drain or Brain Circulation?” Issue Brief   Division of Science Resources Studies, NSF 98-316 (June 22).

            http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/issuebrf/sib98316.htm

6. Burton , Lawrence and Jack Wang. 1999. “How Much Does the U.S. Rely on           Immigrant Engineers?” Issue Brief Division of Science Resources Studies, NSF     99-32 (February 11).

            http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/issuebrf/sib99327.htm

7. Currie, Chris. 1998. “IEEE-USA/Harris Poll: U.S. Public Overwhelmingly Opposed to         H-1B Visa Expansion,” (September 16)

            http://www.ieeeusa.org/releases/1998/pr091698.html

8. Reed. Billy E. 1995. “Statement of the President: American Engineering Association,”            submitted to the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Immigration and Claims (June          29).

9. Stossel, Scott. 1999. “Uncontrolled Experiment,” The New Republic (March 29).

            https://ssl.tnr.com/p/docsub.mhtml?r=sub&uri=%2Farchive%2F0399%2F032999%2Fstossel032999.html

10. Anderson, Stuart. 1996. “They Don’t Work Cheap; They Don’t Steal Jobs. The Wage       and Employment Impact of Immigrant Scientists and Engineers in High         Technology,”  International Educator NAFSA.

11. Deutch, John. 1991. “The Foreign Policy of U.S. Universities,” Science Editorial     253:5019 (August 2) 492.

            http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0036-8075%2819910802%293%3A253%3A5019%3C%3ATFPOUU%3E2.0.CO%3B   2-Y

12. Hopke, Philip K. 1991. “Foreign Students and U.S. Economic Health,” Science Letter        in response to Deutch Editorial, 253:5025 (August) 1194.

            http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0036-8075%2819910913%293%3A253%3A5025%3C1194%3AFSAUSE%3E2.0.CO    %3B2-R

13. Dash, Julekha. 2001. “H-1B Hiring Steady Despite Cap Increase,” ITWorld.com   (Feb 28)

            http://www.itworld.com/News/2001/2/CWSTO58064/pfindex.html.

 

III. DATA

 

1. Davis, Geoff and Fiske, Peter. “Results from the 1999 PhDs.org Graduate School     Survey.”

            http://ehrweb.aaas.org/mge/Newsletter/Jan2001.pdf

2. National Research Council. “Measuring the Science and Engineering Enterprise :         Priorities for the Division of Science Resource Studies,” Office of Scientific and        Engineering Personnel, Committee on National Statistics. ( Washington DC :             National Academy Press).

            http://www.nap.edu/books/0309068924/html/11.html

 

IV.  CAREERS

 

1. Special Report for Science. 1999. “Postdocs Working for Respect,” Science Vol.    285:5433, Issue of 3 (Sept 3) 1513-1535.

            http://www.sciencemag.org/content/vol285/issue5433/index.shtml

2. Mervis, Jeffrey. “The World of Postdocs,” Introduction.

            http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/285/5433/1514

3. Ferber, Dan. “Postdoc Activism: Getting to the Front of the Bus.”

            http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/285/5433/1515

4. Ferber, Dan. “Postdoc Activism: What Postdocs Want – and How.”

            http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/285/5433/1515

5. Ferber, Dan. “Postdoc Activism: Irreconcilable Differences.”

            http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/285/5433/1516

6. Schmidt, Karen. “Science Careers: Will the Job Market Ever Get Better?”

            http://www.sciencemag.org./cgi/content/full/285/5433/1517

7. Mervis, Jeffrey. “Economics: Cheap Labor Is Key to US Research Productivity.”

            http://www.sciencemag.org./cgi/content/full/285/5433/1519

8. Normile, Dennis. “ Japan : Japanese Jump on Postdoc Bandwagon.”

            http://www.sciencemag.org./cgi/content/full/285/5433/1521

9. Mervis, Jeffrey. “Foreign Exchanges: Going Abroad Needn’t Mean Going Into Exile.”

            http://www.sciencemag.org./cgi/content/full/285/5433/1522

10. Balter, Michael. “Foreign Exchanges: Europeans Who Do Postdocs Abroad Face   Reentry Problems.”

            http://www.sciencemag.org./cgi/content/full/285/5433/1524

11. Balter, Michael. “ Germany : Germany Tries to Break Its Habilitation Habit.”

            http://www.sciencemag.org./cgi/content/full/285/5433/1525

12. Normile, Dennis. “ Denmark : Denmark Proposes Postdoc Tonic for Universities.”

            http://www.sciencemag.org./cgi/content/full/285/5433/1526

13. Holden, Constance. “Career Advice: Eight Attributes of Highly Successful Postdocs.”

            http://www.sciencemag.org./cgi/content/full/285/5433/1527

14. Mervis, Jeffrey. “News: Minority Postdocs Are Rare, Independent Breed.”

            http://www.sciencemag.org./cgi/content/full/285/5433/1529

15. Vogel, Gretchen. “News: A Day in the Life of a Topflight Lab.”

            http://www.sciencemag.org./cgi/content/full/285/5433/1531

16. Nerad, Maresi and Joseph Cerny. “Viewpoint: Postdoctoral Patterns, Career          Advancement, and Problems.”

            http://www.sciencemag.org./cgi/content/full/285/5433/1533

17. Levin, Sharon G. and Paula E. Stephan. 1991. “Research Productivity Over the Life            Cycle: Evidence for Academic Scientists,” American Economic Review 81:1          (March) 114-132.

            http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8282%28199103%2981%3A1%3C114%3ARPOTLC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P

18. Preston, Anne E. 2000. “Do Differences in Rates of Skill Depreciation across          Scientific Fields Impact Labor Market Outcomes?” Haverford College , draft   under publisher review. June.

            http://www.haverford.edu/econ/faculty/preston_papers/ch7.pdf

19. Preston, Anne E. 1994. “Why Have All the Women Gone? A Study of Exit of         Women from the Science and Engineering Professions,” American Economic             Review 84:5 (December) 1446-1462.

            http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8282%28199412%2984%3A5%3C1446%3AWHATWG%3E2.0.CO%3B2-%23

20. Leslie, Larry L. and Ronald L. Oaxaca. 1998. “Women and Minorities in Higher     Education,” Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research Vol XIII ( Bronx, NY: Agathon Press).

21. National Research Council. 1998. “Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists,”   Chapter 3. Committee on Dimensions, Causes and Implications of Recent Trends             in the Careers of Life Scientists. Board on Biology, Commission on Life      Sciences, Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel ( Washington, DC:        National Academy Press). Pp 33-48.

            http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/trends/

22.  Malcolm, S.M., V.V. Van Horne, C.D. Gaddy and Y.S. George. 1998. “Losing    ground: Science and Engineering Graduate Education of Black and Hispanic        Americans.” ( Washington, DC: AAAS, Directorate for Education and Human             Resources Programs) 5-8.

            http://ehrweb.aaas.org/ehr/exec.html

23. Bunk, Steve. 1998. “Young Scientists Face Demand for Broader-Based Education,”           The Scientist (August 17) 12-13.

            http://www.the-scientist.com/yr1998/august/prof_980817.html

24. Boyd, Douglas and Michael Van Dyke. 2000. “PhDs Graduating in 1989 and in 1970-       72 Show Substantial Variation. A Career Outcome Study,” The Scientist     14[11]:39 (May 29).

            http://www.the-scientist.com/yr2000/may/opin_000529.html

25. Regets, Mark C. 1999. “Has the Use of Postdocs Changed?” Issue Brief Divison of            Science Resources Studies, NSF 99-310 (December 2).

            http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/issuebrf/sib99310.htm

26. National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resource Studies. 1999. “Retention         of the Best Science and Engineering Graduates in Science and Engineering,” NSF          99-321, Project Officer, John Tsapogas ( Arlington, VA).

            http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/nsf99321/text.htm

 

V.  PRODUCTIVITY

 

1. Bound, John, Gabor Kezdi, and Sarah Turner. 2000. “Trade in University Training:   Cross State Variation in the Production and Use of College Educated Labor,”          manuscript under publisher review (July 25).

            http://papers.nber.org/papers/w8555.pdf

2. Lynne G. Zucker, Michael R. Darby, and Marilynn B. Brewer. 1998. “Intellectual     Human Capital and the Birth of U.S. Biotechnology Enterprises,” American Economic Review Vol 88:1 (March) 290-306.

            http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8282%28199803%2988%3A1%3C290%3AIHCATB%3E2.0.CO%3B2-%23

3. Adams, James D., Eric P. Chiang, Katara Starkey. 2000. “Industry-University          Cooperative Research Centers” NBER WP# 7843, August. ( Cambridge, MA: NBER).

            http://papers.nber.org/papers/w7843.pdf

4. Adams, James D. 2000. “Endogenous R&D Spillovers and Industrial Research         Productivity,” University of Florida (July).

            http://papers.nber.org/papers/w7484.pdf

5. Jaffe, Adam B. and Josh Lerner. 1999. “Privatizing R&D: Patent Policy and the         Commercialization of national Laboratory Technologies,” NBER WP#7064,   April ( Cambridge, MA: NBER).

            http://papers.nber.org/papers/w7064.pdf

6. Branstetter, Lee. 2000. “Is Foreign Direct Investment A Channel of Knowledge        Spillovers? Evidence from Japan ’s FDI in the United States ,” NBER WP#8015,    November ( Cambridge, MA: NBER).

            http://papers.nber.org/papers/w8015.pdf

7. Tsapogas, John and Lawrence M. Rausch, Project Officers, Mary Collins, Westat.   1999. “Will Small Business Become the Nation’s Leading Employer of Graduates     with Bachelor’s Degrees in Science and Engineering?” NSF Division of Science            Resource Studies (January).

            http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/nsf99322/pdf/text.pdf

 

VI. RECENT POLICY RESPONSES

 

1. Romer, Paul M.. 2000. “Should the Government Subsidize Supply or Demand in the             Market for Scientists and Engineers?,” NBER WP#7723, June ( Cambridge, MA:            NBER).

            http://papers.nber.org/papers/w7723.pdf

2. Hetter, Katia. 2001. “NYU Recognizes Grad Student Union,” Newsday.com (March 3)       A21.

            http://wildcat.arizona.edu/papers/94/112/01_95_m.html

3. Trick, Randy. 2000. “GPSS Calls on Administration to Recognize TA Unionization,”             The Daily University of Washington Student Newspaper (April 13).

            http://archives.thedaily.washington.edu/2000/041300/N2.GPSS.html

4. PR Newswire. 2000. “University of Illinois Graduate Employees Win Contract Rights;           Unanimous Court Ruling Allows IFT Union Election.” (June 30).

            http://www.shout.net/~geo/news/pr/2000/000630iftappellaterelease.html

5. Sacbee.com News. “UC Graduate Student Employees Vote for Union.”

6. O’Neill, James M. 2000. “ Temple Grad Students Gain Right to Unionize,”    Philadelphia Enquirer (October 19)

            http://web.philly.com/content/inquirer/2000/10/19/city/TEMP19.htm

7. Krumholz, Mark. “UAW Local 2865,” Bargaining web-page created for UAW Local           2865.

            http://www.uaw2865.org/

8. Marincola, Elizabeth and Frank Solomon. 1998. “The Career Structure in Biomedical            Research: Implications for Training and Trainees: The American Society for Cell    Biology survey on the State of the Profession,” Molecular Biology of the Cell 9          (November) 3003-6.

            http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=9802891

9. Griffiths, Phillip A. 1995. “Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and           Engineers,” Preface. ( Washington, DC: National Academy Press).

            http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/grad/

10. National Academy of Sciences. 1995. “Reshaping the Graduate Education of          Scientists and Engineers,” Executive Summary. ( Washington, DC: National   Academy Press).

            http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/grad/summary.html

11. Association of American Universities. 1998. “Committee on Graduate Education:    Report and Recommendations.” (October)

            http://www.aau.edu/reports/GradEdRpt.pdf

12. Odom, William E. 1998. “Report on the Senior Assessment Panel for the    International Assessment of the U.S. Mathematical Sciences,” (March).

            http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1998/nsf9895/start.htm

13. Jackson, Allyn. 2001. “NSF Launches Major Initiative in Mathematics,” Notices of             the AMS 48:2 (February) 190-192.

            http://www.ams.org/notices/200102/comm-nsf.pdf

14. Jackson, Allyn. 2001. “Job Market Brightens for Applicants,” Notices of the AMS             48:4 (April) 394-5.

            http://www.ams.org/notices/200104/200104-body-ps.html

15. National Research Council. 1998. “Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists,”   Executive Summary. Committee on Dimensions, Causes and Implications of            Recent Trends in the Careers of Life Scientists. Board on Biology, Commission      on Life Sciences, Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel ( Washington,    DC: National Academy Press). Pp 1-10.

            http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/trends/

16. National Research Council. “Addressing the Nation’s Changing Needs for   Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists.” Executive Summary and Chapter 5.       Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists,             Education and Career Studies Unit, Office of Scientific and Engineering             Personnel. ( Washington, DC: National Academy Press). Pp 1-3; 53-61.

            http://www.nap.edu/books/0309069815/html/