The Measure of Man and Older Age Mortality: Evidence from the Gould Sample

For a description of the data please see, Dora L. Costa, "The Measure of Man and Older Age Mortality: Evidence from the Gould Sample," NBER Working Paper No. 8843

gouldsub.ssd01 and milrec.ssd01 can be linked using the variable recidnum. is a sample program for converting the SAS transport file to a SAS data file. Non-SAS users can convert the data to other formats using software such as Stat/Transfer.

The variables are listed in Costa, "The Measure of Man and Older Age Mortality: Evidence from the Gould Sample."

For documentation for milrec.ssd01 users should utilize the codebook for ICPSR 6837,"Aging of Veterans of the Union Army: Military, Pension, and Medical Records, 1820-1940," Robert W. Fogel, Principal Investigator.

Internal users can obtain the data in a UNIX shell at /home/data/gould, or on an NBER PC, Network Neighborhood --> NBER --> home --> data --> gould

Updates and changes.


Description SAS Data File SAS Transport File Tab-delimited
The main Gould dataset gouldall.ssd01 gouldall.tpt gouldall.csv
A subsample of the Gould dataset containing the records of 521 white Union soldiers who survived to 1900 and the records of men who were searched for and found in the pension records but who did not live to 1900. The sample was randomly generated from gouldall.ssd01 for all men without missing name and regiment information. gouldsub.ssd01 gouldsub.tpt gouldsub.asc
The full pension and military service records of men in the Gould subsample who survived to 1900 and death date information for men who did not survive to 1900. milrec.ssd01 milrec.tpt milrec.asc

The original forms used different schedules, Form E (E), a variant on form E (WE), Form EE (EE), and a social questionairre (SE). The variable form used indicates which of these it is. Because the data were collected under different screen versions, not all variables in this release are fully compatible. Screen version is indicated in the variable source (EE=form EE version 1, SE=social form, WE=variant on form E version 1, E=form E version 1, i2=form EE version 2, i7=form EE version 3, il=form E version 2). Note that some variables may contain absurd values, so users should check for measurements that are outside of reasonable bounds. Birth place codes are given in the pdf file, birthcodes.pdf.

To report errors, or if you have questions or comments, e-mail

Last Update: March 26, 2002 Created by Jean Roth March 26, 2002

NBER Videos

National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138; 617-868-3900; email:

Contact Us