NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
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14 August 2018

Job Market Signaling through Occupational Licensing

In the presence of occupational licensing, research by Peter Q. Blair and Bobby W. Chung shows, firms rely less on observable characteristics such as race and gender in determining employee wages. Licensed minorities and women experience smaller wage gaps than their unlicensed peers.

13 August 2018

Human Resource Management and Startup Performance

In a field experiment in India, Aaron Chatterji, Solène Delecourt, Sharique Hasan, and Rembrand M. Koning find that the firms of entrepreneurs advised to take an active approach to people management grew 28 percent larger and were 10 percentage points less likely to fail than firms advised to take a passive approach.

10 August 2018

Diversity and Health: Evidence from Oakland

African-American men, who have the lowest life expectancy of any major demographic group in the U.S., are much more likely to use preventive services such as flu vaccine after meeting with an African-American doctor, Marcella Alsan, Owen Garrick, and Grant C. Graziani find.

9 August 2018

The Effects of Travel Costs on Collaboration

Introduction of new routes by a major low-cost airfare is associated with a 50 percent increase in scientific collaborations, according to a study by Christian Catalini, Christian Fons-Rosen, and Patrick Gaulé. The effect is especially pronounced among high-quality scientists in worse local environments.

8 August 2018

Market Failure in Kidney Exchange

A study by Nikhil Agarwal, Itai Ashlagi, Eduardo Azevedo, Clayton R. Featherstone, and Ömer Karaduman shows that kidney exchange markets suffer from fragmentation and inefficiency because most transplants are arranged by hospitals instead of national platforms. They estimate that the number of transplants could be increased 25-50 percent with market reforms.

7 August 2018

Financing Growth with Cryptocurrency Token Sales

Sales of blockchain-based digital tokens associated with specific platforms or assets have emerged as a new financing instrument. Sabrina T. Howell, Marina Niessner, and David Yermack find that when issuers offer voluntary disclosure, credibly commit to the project, and signal quality, liquidity and trading volume are higher.

6 August 2018

Global Market Power

The average global markup has gone up from close to 1.1 in 1980 to around 1.6 in 2016, Jan De Loecker and Jan Eeckhout show. Markups have risen most in North America and Europe, and least in emerging economies in Latin America and Asia.

3 August 2018

R&D Investment and Corporate Income Tax Cuts in China

Tax cuts for Chinese firms that increase R&D investment increased reported R&D spending and firm-level productivity, even though about 30 percent of the increase was just relabeling of administrative expenses, Zhao Chen, Zhikuo Liu, Juan Carlos Suárez Serrato, and Daniel Yi Xu find.

2 August 2018

The Mommy Effect on Women and the Labor Market

Female high school seniors substantially overestimate the likelihood they will be in the labor market in their 30s, according to research by Ilyana Kuziemko, Jessica Pan, Jenny Shen, and Ebonya Washington. This is because they underestimate the demands of motherhood.

1 August 2018

Female Labor Force Participation in Saudi Arabia

The vast majority of young married men in Saudi Arabia privately support women working outside of the home and substantially underestimate the level of support for this by other similar men, Leonardo Bursztyn, Alessandra L. González, and David Yanagizawa-Drott find.
 
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