NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

21 June 2017

Gender Diversity and Performance in Venture Capital

Using a unique dataset containing information on the gender of venture capital partners’ children, Paul A. Gompers and Sophie Q. Wang find that venture capital firms whose partners have more daughters have an increased propensity to hire female partners and that this increased gender diversity improves deal and fund performance.

20 June 2017

Principal Training and Student Achievement

Management training for principals significantly increases student achievement in all subjects in year one but has an insignificant effect in year two, according to a study of Houston public schools by Roland G. Fryer, Jr. Schools with principals who are predicted to remain in their positions for both years of the experiment experience large benefits in both years.

19 June 2017

The Local Air Pollution Costs of Coal Storage

Coal deliveries to power plants raise the average airborne concentration of fine particulates. Akshaya Jha and Nicholas Z. Muller estimate that a 10 percent increase in coal deliveries leads to a 6.6 percent higher mortality rate among infants and a 1.1 percent higher rate for adults for locations up to 25 miles away and downwind from the plants.

16 June 2017

Is Preventive Care Worth the Cost?

Analyzing data on mandatory preventive care visits in Japan, Toshiaki Iizuka, Katsuhiko Nishiyama, Brian Chen, and Karen Eggleston find that patients respond to health signals and increase physician visits after preventive care visits, but they do not find any evidence that additional care is cost effective.

15 June 2017

A Long-Run View of Racial Differences
in American Women's Labor Market Outcomes

Both black and white American women significantly increased their labor force participation in the period 1940 to 2014, and their differences in occupational and wage distributions narrowed significantly as black women’s relative outcomes improved, according to research by William J. Collins and Michael Q. Moody. Following a period of rapid convergence, however, census data indicate the racial wage gap for women widened after 1980.

14 June 2017

Distributional Consequences of Large Devaluations

Javier Cravino and Andrei A. Levchenko find that the 1994 Mexican devaluation raised the cost of living by between 1.48 and 1.62 times more for those in the bottom income decile than for those at the top. This is because of the larger role of tradeable goods and lower-priced varietals in the consumption basket of low earners.

13 June 2017

The Effect of Natural Disasters on Economic Activity

Leah Platt Boustan, Matthew E. Kahn, Paul W. Rhode, and Maria Lucia Yanguas analyze the effects of natural disasters great and small in the United States from 1920 to 2010. They find that the most severe disasters increase out-migration rates and lower housing prices, especially in areas at particular risk of disaster activity, but that milder disasters have little effect.

12 June 2017

The Effect of Birth Order on Non-Cognitive Abilities

Earlier-born Swedish men are more emotionally stable, persistent, socially outgoing, willing to assume responsibility, and able to take the initiative than later-borns, according to research by Sandra E. Black, Erik Grönqvist, and Björn Öckert. First-born children are more likely to be managers, while later-borns more likely to be self-employed. Some negative effects of birth order appear to be driven by lower parental human capital investments in later-born children.

9 June 2017

Effects of Fiscal Consolidations: Theory and Evidence

Cuts in government spending and transfer programs reduce output by less than equal-sized tax hikes, according to a study by Alberto Alesina, Omar Barbiero, Carlo Favero, Francesco Giavazzi, and Matteo Paradisi. Distortions created by high tax rates contribute to the output decline associated with tax increases.

8 June 2017

Lead and Juvenile Delinquency: New Evidence
from Linked Birth, School, and Detention Records

Analyzing data on over 120,000 children born between 1990 and 2004 in Rhode Island, Anna Aizer and Janet Currie report that a one-unit increase in blood level concentration of lead was associated with an increase in the probability of suspension from school by 6.5 to 7 percent for boys and 6.4 to 9 percent for girls. Lead exposure also was associated with an increase the likelihood that boys would be incarcerated.
 
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